/etc/passwd.org, /etc/group.org, /etc/shadow.org files

On a Debian 10 server, which started as Debian 7 and updated whenever new version came out, I accidentally found these three files:

/etc/passwd.org, /etc/group.org, /etc/shadow.org

The backup files /etc/passwd-, /etc/group-, /etc/shadow- and other *- files are present, as they should.

For example, all passwd files are (same applies for the other two):

$ ll /etc/passwd*
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 2,1K Αυγ  13 14:08 /etc/passwd
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 2,1K Αυγ  13 14:06 /etc/passwd-
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 2,0K Ιουν 20  2015 /etc/passwd.org

Their last access time is somewhere in 2015. Their contents are on par with /etc/passwd, /etc/group, /etc/shadow, as they probably were some time in the past – I can see some deleted users. I cannot find any info of such *org files. Does anybody has any idea what are there *org files and what is their use?

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Author: Krackout

Dual network interface control with systemd

On a debian machine, I have two network interfaces: eth1 and eth2.

Eth1 is static and eth2 is using dhcp. How to make so that when the eth1 interface is active, the eth2 interface is down and vice versa? Basically I want the two interfaces never to be active at the same time.
I’ve started to make a script with ifdown ifup in the crontab but obviously we should be able to do it with systemd.

Do you have any idea how to make this easy?

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Author: Rig0L

rtk8192ee wifi firmare stops loading after ifenslave setup attempt (Debian 10)

I tried setting up Mode 0 NIC bonding using ifenslave between my Ethernet and WiFi cards on Debian 10.

After numerous ifconfig wls1 up/down, I was able to set up Bond0 until it stopped working. After undoing the setup, I realized ifconfig wls1 up wasn’t loading the WiFi adapter’s firmware anymore (rtk8192ee)

:~$ sudo dmesg | grep firmware

[5.201360] rtl8192ee: Using firmware rtlwifi/rtl8192eefw.bin

[5.201745] rtl8192ee 0000:24:00.0: firmware: failed to load rtlwifi/rtl8192eefw.bin (-2)

[5.201799] firmware_class: See https://wiki.debian.org/Firmware for information about missing firmware

[5.201845] rtl8192ee 0000:24:00.0: Direct firmware load for rtlwifi/rtl8192eefw.bin failed with error -2

I know I’m not missing the firmware because it was working before. Could this be a NetworkManager bug?

Please see my /etc/network/interfacesfile below

source /etc/network/interfaces.d/*

auto lo

iface lo inet loopback

Any ideas why the firmware is acting up?

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Author: cvlo

How to obtain the path of a Bash script, when it’s executed through a symlink?

I want to obtain the path of a Bash script, is when it’s executed through a symlink.

In this case, $0 is -bash, while BASH_SOURCE is the symlink’s path.

Can I obtain the script’s path through some shell variable, built-in shell command, or external command?

Will BASH_SOURCE always holds the initial symlink’s path, even if the script is executed through several levels of indirection (multiple symlinks)?

Could I use ls with BASH_SOURCE to always retrieve the script’s path?

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Author: Shuzheng

HDMI input not detected on Debian 10

I am running Debian 10 Buster on an an hybrid laptop with the following GPUs:

$ lspci | grep -E "VGA|3D"
00:02.0 VGA compatible controller: Intel Corporation UHD Graphics 630   (Mobile)
01:00.0 VGA compatible controller: NVIDIA Corporation GP106M [GeForce GTX 1060] (rev a1)

According to system settings > details the GPU in use is: Intel® UHD Graphics 630 (Coffeelake 3×8 GT2)

I have tried to open the Nvidia X server settings but nothing happens.

I previously used Mint and Ubuntu and had no problems the HDMI was detected automatically.

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Author: JudeB

Cannot install Cinnamon on Debian. Is this environment compatible with it?

One year and half ago, I tried to install my new Debian 9 computer with Cinnamon : it failed and froze at installation. Because I had no Linux knowledge I installed Gnome instead.

Today, I am on Debian 10 and I did a try on an Debian 10 VM to be safe… With Cinnamon again, and I installed it that way :

sudo apt-get install cinnamon-desktop-environment cinnamon-l10n -y
  1. The VM started,
  2. after login a Debian wallpaper screen appeared. But it was empty : no icons, no menus, nothing.
  3. Then 30 seconds after a crash message came.

Is Cinnamon definitely not compatible with Debian ?

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Author: Marc

How can I set PHP 7.2 under Debian 10?

I’m trying to install phpBB and am getting that 7.3 is too new to be supported, with a suggestion of downgrading to 7.2.

Am I correct that I want to downgrade PHP to 7.2, and if so, what are the preferred methods? aptitude does not appear to offer a php7.2 complement of functions.

I might be able to install from source, but if that’s the best option I see, I probably don’t see the best option.

How can / should I make PHP 7.2 available to phpBB, whether through making a parallel PHP 7 installation or some other means?


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Author: Christos Hayward

Systemd service not starting – ‘Failed at step EXEC spawning… Permission denied’

I’ve read other answers for similar issues (Failed at step EXEC spawning… Permission denied) and none seem to apply.

After I upgraded my bitcoin node to v0.20.0 it is no longer starting on boot nor manually with systemctl start bitcoind.service.

Journalctl output:-

$ journalctl -xe
Jul 12 15:58:22 $HOSTNAME systemd[572]: bitcoind.service: Failed to execute command: Permission denied
Jul 12 15:58:22 $HOSTNAME systemd[572]: bitcoind.service: Failed at step EXEC spawning /usr/bin/bitcoind: Permission denied
-- Subject: Process /usr/bin/bitcoind could not be executed
-- Defined-By: systemd
-- Support: https://www.debian.org/support
-- The process /usr/bin/bitcoind could not be executed and failed.

I’m using the default init script (https://github.com/bitcoin/bitcoin/blob/master/contrib/init/bitcoind.service) softlinked from my home directory to /etc/systemd/system/.

The executable is softlinked from my home directory into /usr/local/bin, so previous answer I’ve linked above suggesting an SELinux issue could apply but I don’t believe it is enabled: (-bash: getenforce: command not found). I am running Debian 10.4 and believe it is disabled by default.

$ ls -al /usr/bin/bitcoind 
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 34 May  5  2019 /usr/bin/bitcoind -> /home/$MY_NAME/src/bitcoin/src/bitcoind
$ ls -al /home/$MY_NAME/src/bitcoin/src/bitcoind
-rwxr-xr-x 1 bitcoin bitcoin 175058584 Jul  7 20:40 /home/$MY_NAME/src/bitcoin/src/bitcoind

Everything is set to run under the ‘bitcoin’ nologin user:

$ id bitcoin
uid=999(bitcoin) gid=999(bitcoin) groups=999(bitcoin)
$ cat /etc/passwd

Here are the permissions on the relevant directories:

$ sudo ls -al /etc/bitcoin
total 12
drwx--x---  2 bitcoin bitcoin 4096 Jul 11 22:30 .
drwxr-xr-x 87 root    root    4096 Jul 12 15:58 ..
-rw-rw----  1 bitcoin bitcoin  601 Jul 11 22:30 bitcoin.conf
$ ls -al /var/lib/bitcoind
total 21896
drwx--x---  5 bitcoin bitcoin     4096 Jul  9 11:55 .
drwxr-xr-x 32 root    root        4096 Dec  5  2019 ..
$ ls -al /run
total 24
drwxr-xr-x 18 root        root         560 Jul 12 15:59 .
drwxr-xr-x 22 root        root        4096 Jun  2 17:46 ..

I’m stumped – any input greatly appreciated.

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Author: Baron Mingus

Where does grub-mkconfig get the UUID for root?

When I run grub-mkconfig on Debian 10, it generates smth like:

        if [ x$feature_platform_search_hint = xy ]; then
          search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root --hint-bios=hd0,gpt2 --hint-efi=hd0,gpt2 --hint-baremetal=ahci0,gpt2  fc6c3fbf-8cfc-411c-ac5d-072c6e8c8092
          search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root fc6c3fbf-8cfc-411c-ac5d-072c6e8c8092
        linux /boot/vmlinuz-4.19.0-9-amd64 root=UUID=e0674dbf-3546-4898-9933-c9eb55703cb5 ro single
        initrd /boot/initrd.img-4.19.0-9-amd64

What is being done in this piece of the program and why it uses different UUIDs? And where these UUIDS was taken from?

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Author: Alex Noname

Debian 10.4 / Exim 4.92 add incremental delay to the unsuccessful login attempt answer

Browsed over all the internet, but cannot find an answer – is there any acl or something that I could apply to unsuccessful login attempt to add delay to it? As probably anyone running mx, I have a lot of bots logins trying to guess users passwords. To make dictionary attacks at least a bit more difficult, I’d like to add some (incremental is better) delay after each unsuccessful login attempt’s answer.
But cannot find how to do that with standard debian exim installation. Please share one with a brief explanation. Thank you.

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Author: BbIKTOP