are disk controllers necessary?

I think the question is straight forward.
I just bought a hard drive (Western Digital HC320 Ultrastar 8TB DataCenter)
and in the official page under compatibility, I noticed so many devices
after a bit of research, I discovered they were “Disk controllers”
as my hard drive is not working so far with a SATA iii to USB adapater alongside a 12V 1A power supply
when I plug it to my computer (HP 250 g4).
so I want to know if the “disk con gtroller” is necessary and this wont work without it.
and if yes, then in what cases a hard drive needs a disk controller, and in what cases it doesnt.
thank you.

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Author: Amine