How is reproducable build guaranteed with version ranges in NPM

I know with npm, caret and tilder and some logical operators can be used to specify version ranges. This post explains a bit on how this works.

The problem now is I find it hard to rectify the use of version ranges with the idea of having reproducible builds.

I mean version ranges for dependencies means that you are not specifying a requirement for a particular version but a range of version, which might change between builds (ie a patch release of a dependency was released between the last and current build).

Reproducible build seeks to remove variability in environment ensuring that every repeated build would always be the same.

From where I stand, these two ideas are in conflict with each other, hence my question here: perhaps someone can help me understand how it is ever possible to have reproducible builds with version ranges when using npm

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Author: Finlay Weber

What can be used as abbreviation for perpetual beta?

According to Wikipedia, we talk about stages of development;

  • prealpha
  • alpha
  • beta
  • release candidate
  • stable

But, beta also have 2 sub-stages;

  • perpetual beta
  • open/closed beta

Now if we were to version a software with these and semver. It would look somewhat like this:

  • prealpha: 0.x.x
  • alpha: x.0.0-alpha.x
  • beta: x.0.0-beta.x
  • release candidate: x.0.0-rc.x
  • stable: x.x.x

However how would these look if we want to differentiate between perpetual and open/closed beta?
Would this be allowed, and if yes would something like this work?

  • perpetual beta: x.0.0-pb.x
  • open/closed beta: x.0.0-ob.x, x.0.0-cb.x

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Author: Keimeno